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Local Governance

Nepal has two-tier system of local governance, with village and municipal bodies as the lower tier and district bodies as the higher. The village bodies are called Village Development Committees (VDCs) with municipalities serving the same function in town areas. The district bodies are the District Development Committees (DDCs).

The current structure of local governance in Nepal was put in place after the restoration of democracy in 1990 and the current functions, duties, and power of the Local Governance (LG) is in effect after promulgation of Local Self Governance Act in 1999.

All VDCs are divided into nine wards. Municipalities are divided into a minimum of nine wards but the maximum number is not specified. Wards are the smallest units of local governance.

Each ward has a committee (WC) made up of the five elected members, one of which must be a woman. VDCs and municipal committees run LG's affairs. Village Councils (VCs) and Municipal Councils (MCs) meet biannually to approve or question VDC and municipality policies, programs and budgets. VDC chairpersons, vice-chairpersons, ward members and six nominated members representing women and disadvantaged groups form the village councils. Municipal councils (MCs) have a similar structure but the number of nominated members can be maximum of twenty.

There are 3913 VDCs, 58 Municipalities and 75 districts in Nepal.


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