Nepal has two-tier system
of local governance, with village and municipal bodies as
the lower tier and district bodies as the higher. The village
bodies are called Village Development Committees (VDCs)
with municipalities serving the same function in town
areas. The district bodies are the District Development
The current structure of local governance
in Nepal was put in place after the restoration of democracy
in 1990 and the current functions, duties, and power of
the Local Governance (LG) is in effect after promulgation
Self Governance Act in 1999.
All VDCs are divided into nine wards.
Municipalities are divided into a minimum of nine wards
but the maximum number is not specified. Wards are the smallest
units of local governance.
Each ward has a committee (WC) made up
of the five elected members, one of which must be a woman.
VDCs and municipal committees run LG's affairs. Village
Councils (VCs) and Municipal Councils (MCs) meet biannually
to approve or question VDC and municipality policies, programs
and budgets. VDC chairpersons, vice-chairpersons, ward members
and six nominated members representing women and disadvantaged
groups form the village councils. Municipal councils (MCs)
have a similar structure but the number of nominated members
can be maximum of twenty.
There are 3913 VDCs, 58
Municipalities and 75 districts in Nepal.
Local Governance Bodies